Favour and disgrace goad as it were to madness; high rank hurts keenly as our bodies hurt.
Favour:an attitude of approval or liking. 偏爱
disgrace: loss of reputation or respect, especially as the result of a dishonorable action. 耻辱
What does it mean to say that favour and disgrace goad as it were to madness?
It means that when a rule’s subjects get it they turn distraught,
when they lose it they turn distraught.
That is what is meant to by saying favour and disgrace goad as it were to madness.
distraught：deeply upset and agitated.
agitated： feeling or appearing troubled or nervous.
What does it mean to say that high rank hurts keenly as our bodies hurt?
The only reason that we suffer hurt is that we have bodies;
if we had no bodies, how could we suffer?
Therefore we may accept the saying:
“He who in dealing with the empire regards his high rank as through it were his body is the best person to be entrusted with rules;
he who in dealing with the empire loves his subjects as one should love one’s body is the best person to whom one commit the empire.”
entrust：assign the responsibility for doing something to (someone).委托
Because the eye gazes but can catch no glimpse of it,
It is called elusive.
Because the ear listens but cannot hear it,
It is called the rarefied.
Because the hand feels for it but cannot find it,
It is called the infinitesimal.
These three, because they cannot be further scrutinized,
Blend into one,
elusive：difficult to find, catch, or achieve. 难以捉摸表达
rarefied：distant from the lives and concerns of ordinary people. 稀薄，表达
infinitesimal：extremely small. 表达
the hand feels for it but cannot find it,，类似上述的
Its rising brings no light;
Its sinking, no darkness.
Endless the series of things without name
On the way back to where there is nothing.
They are called shapeless shapes;
Forms without form;
Are called vague semblance.
shapeless shapes无状之状 Forms without form无物之象 vague：of uncertain, indefinite, or unclear character or meaning. 模糊的 semblance：the outward appearance or apparent form of something, especially when the reality is different. 外表
Go towards them, and you can see no front;
Go after them, and you see no rear.
Yet by seizing on the Way that was
You can ride the things that are now.
For to know what once there was, in the Beginning,
This is called the essence of the Way.
the essence of the Way. 道的本质，
Of old those that were the best officers of Court
Had inner natures subtle, abstruse, mysterious, penetrating,
Too deep to be understood.
And because such men could not be understood
I can but tell of them as they appeared to the world:
best officers of Court：用官员来译
subtle 微， abstruse 妙, mysterious 玄, penetrating 通， 译的好！
Circumspect they seemed, like one who in winter crosses a stream,
Watchful, as one who must meet danger on every side.
Ceremonious, as one who pays a visit;
Yet yielding, as ice when it begins to melt.
Blank, as a piece of uncarved wood;
Yet receptive as a hollow in the hills.
Murky, as a troubled stream —–
Tranquil, as the vast reaches of the sea,
Drifting as the wind with no stop.
Circumspect：wary and unwilling to take risks.审慎，以之译
Ceremonious：relating or appropriate to grand and formal occasions. 隆重。以之译
yielding:(of a substance or object) giving way under pressure; not hard or rigid. 柔，以之译
receptive：able or willing to receive something, especially signals or stimuli. 接受性的，以之译
Murky：dark and gloomy, especially due to thick mist. 模糊的，以之译
Tranquil：free from disturbance; calm.宁静，以之译
Which of you an assume such murkiness, to become in the end still and clear?
Which of you can make yourself insert, to become in the end full of life and stir?
Those who possess this Tao do not try to fill themselves to the brim,
And because they do not try to fill themselves to the brim,
They are like a garment that endures all wear and need never be renewed.
a garment that endures all wear 衣服来比喻不太准确。应含有因其不盈，故可常新之义。