道德经英译本点评(一到三章)

2019-03-05 约 1854 字 预计阅读 4 分钟

今早看到一个TED视频。讲述如何学习外语,她提到她热爱哈利波特,学西班牙语时就直接找了一本哈利波特的西班牙语版本就埋头读了起来。视频如下:

真是一语惊醒梦中人。我正在琢磨看完可汗学院的微观、宏观经济学及金融与资本市场的视频后开始学习日语。

心想这个方法不错啊,我可以直接找一本三国演义日文版就可以看起来。推而广之,英文也可以找一本爱看的书英译版再看起来进一步提高。

本拟用《红楼梦》英译版,但小说耗时过长,有限的人生应尽力放在性命之上。

灵机一触,可以看道德经英文版啊。看看西方人是怎么翻译和理解道的,估计也挺有意思。

网上找到的版本是汉学家亚瑟・威利的1934年写的The Way and Its Power: A Study of the Tao Te Ching and its Place in Chinese Thought

此版本已经超过70年,属于public domain,故此贴在本博也没有什么问题。

就此边贴边细读之。

第一章


道可道,非常道;名可名,非常名。

The Way that can be told of is not an Unvarying Way;
The names that can be named are not unvarying names.

威利用the way来翻译道,西方人看重方法。


无名,天地之始;有名,万物之母。

It was from the Nameless that Heaven and Earth sprang;
The named is but the mother that rears the ten thousand creatures, each after its kind.

spring弹出来表明无中生有天地之始,用rear抚养来表明万物之母。


故常无欲,以观其妙;常有欲,以观其徼。

Truly, “Only he that rids himself forever of desire can see the Secret Essences”;
He that has never rid himself of desire can see only the Outcomes.

Secret Essences秘密本质来形容妙,用Outcomes结果形容徼。此译文褒无欲贬有欲,然道在有欲无欲之间,观妙观徼,不执两边。


此两者,同出而异名,同谓之玄。玄之又玄,众妙之门。

These two things issued from the same mould, but nevertheless are different in name.
This “same mould” we can but call the Mystery, Or rather the “Darker than any Mystery”, The Doorway whence issued all Secret Essences.

the Mystery为玄, the “Darker than any Mystery” 玄之又玄, The Doorway whence issued all Secret Essences 众妙之门。译得真好!

第二章


天下皆知美之为美,斯恶已;皆知善之为善,斯不善已。

It is because every one under Heaven recognizes beauty as beauty,that the idea of ugliness exists.
And equally if every one recognized virtue as virtue,this would merely create fresh conceptions of wickedness.

virtue善,wickedness恶


故有无相生,难易相成,长短相形,高下相倾,音声相和,前后相随。

For truly‘Being and Not-being grow out of one another;
Difficult and easy complete one another;
Long and short test one another;
High and low determine one another;
Pitch and mode give harmony to one another;
Front and back give sequence to one another’

Pitch and mode音声


是以圣人处无为之事,行不言之教,万物作焉而不辞,生而不有,为而不恃,功成而弗居。夫唯弗居,是以不去。

Therefore the Sage relies on actionless activity, Carries on wordless teaching。
But the myriad creatures are worked upon by him; he does not disown them.
He rears them, but does not lay claim to them,
Controls them, but does not lean upon them,
Achieves his aim, but does not call attention to what he does;
And for the very reason that he does not call attention to what he does He is not ejected from fruition of what he has done.

英文不够力,但觉得He is not ejected from fruition of what he has done.翻译的不太好。 因夫唯弗居,是以不去的原因前面也说了,是因为天下皆知美之为美,斯恶已。故此道家创造不占有,成功不自居。

第三章


不尚贤,使民不争;不贵难得之货,使民不为盗;不见可欲,使民心不乱。

If we stop looking for “persons of superior morality” (hsien) to put in power, there will be no more jealousies among the people.
If we cease to set store by products that are hard to get, there will be no more thieves.
If the people never see such things as excite desire, their hearts will remain placid and undisturbed.

好些生词。placid,google翻译成波澜不惊


是以圣人之治,虚其心,实其腹;弱其志,强其骨。

Therefore the Sage rules
By emptying their hearts
And filling their bellies
Weakening their intelligence
And toughening their sinews

虚心实腹,当然很难翻译。故此亚视《八仙过海》电视铁拐李说不是可以用语言来形容的

不过前帖东游记时东华传道钟离说的很好,值得贴在此处。

何谓虚心实腹?心者,吾身之主,念其本来,洞洞空空,原无一物;自人累于物欲,而虚者始实,必却其欲,反其原,则虚者虚,而神在万物之表。腹者精之关,究其始生,保合完固,毫无渗漏。自人嗜于美色,而实者始虚,必固其精,窒其欲,则实者常实,而精在不摇之天。二者完全,则老者可童,夭者可寿;可以身游紫府,可以名书玉京,宁曰仅仅养生已哉。

另弱其志翻译成Weakening their intelligence,似不妥,译意为弱其智了,可能用Weakening their Ambition更佳。


常使民无知无欲,使夫智者不敢为也。为无为,则无不治。

Ever striving to make the people knowledgeless and desireless.
Indeed he sees to it that if there be any who have knowledge, they dare not interfere.
Yet through his actionless activity all things are duly regulated.

西方社会制度挺追求duly regulated。但也没有采用完全的actionless activity。

所谓上法下道。有识之士制定好并逐步完善社会系统框架的过程中,上以法家之严谨以监管政府,下以道家之无为而不扰百姓。

今日暂读三章。


author

Jesse Lau

2012年定居新西兰至今,自由职业者,正努力专研经济学中.
本文采用知识共享署名 4.0 国际许可协议进行许可。简而言之,可随意转发转载,转载请注明出处。


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